This paper will analyze Kazakhstan in order to determine the international strategy by using the tools that the United States uses to determine their international strategy. In order to do this I will look at the three elements of the United States international strategy equation, relate the three international strategies to Kazakhstan, look specifically at how the instruments of their foreign policy affect the international community. I will conclude by analyzing the United States foreign policy objectives effect on Kazakhstan and how Kazakhstan’s foreign policy affects the United States
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The three elements of the United States international strategy equation can be used to explain the international strategy of Kazakhstan. The first element of the equation is the foreign policy objectives. These objectives are the desired results of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. The sum of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy objectives are National security, international interest and international security, and recognition as a global partner especially within the realm of economics.
Kazakhstan’s national security is closely related to Russia’s. At the time when Kazakhstan declared independence it had no standing army so one needed to be developed. This took longer to accomplish than anyone had expected. This was the result of a long standing interdependence with the former Soviet Union. The internal security system of Police, prisons, intelligence gathering, criminal justice remains pretty much unchanged from the soviet era. There is a concern that with the size of Kazakhstan’s military and security forces that they may not be adequate provide security for their borders.
The second objective is to the strengthening of international security and international interest. At the beginning of Kazakhstan’s independence the government established military and political policies in order to address international challenges. The government also joined many international organizations whose efforts are aimed at strengthening global security. Early on Kazakhstan renounced status as a nuclear power. By taking these steps Kazakhstan has shown that they are taking a responsible attitude towards international security.
In 1993 Kazakhstan signed a treaty of non-proliferation. This was an important step in the international community realizing that Kazakhstan is taking a responsible and mature attitude for international matters. By April of 1996, Kazakhstan destroyed the last of their 1416 nuclear warheads from its arsenal and now is a nuclear free state. Kazakhstan’s policy of non-proliferation has been the key to the overall success of their foreign policy.
The third objective of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is developing a global partnership. Kazakhstan is committed to strengthening the democratic principles of the new world order. Through the process of Globalization “the Interdependence of countries on one and other is growing”. There regional alliances developing all over the world. Realizing this, Kazakhstan has been making an effort to promote regional economic and security integration.
The instruments of foreign policy that Kazakhstan will use to in order to attain their objectives are many. Though not quite as robust as the instruments used by the United States they do however model many of our own. Kazakhstan participates in over 140 regional and international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank, Central Asian Cooperation Organization, The Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the Commonwealth of Independent States just to name a few.
Kazakhstan uses diplomacy to help drive their foreign policy objectives. Currently Kazakhstan has established diplomatic relations with over 120 nation states and is a member of 64 international and political organizations. Kazakhstan has accredited about 70 diplomatic missions
Kazakhstan is developing strong economic and trade relations with other countries. Most of the trade is within the sphere of energy products such as oil and natural gas. They are providing military assistance in the global war on terrorism. Security assistance and alliances are the final instruments of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy.
Kazakhstan has gone to great lengths to secure amicable relations with all of their neighbors as well as many other nations in the world community. They have formed alliances with other nation states in the form of energy and trade. This will help Kazakhstan to develop economically without the fear of invasion from surrounding nation states.
The third part of the equation is the foreign policy resources. These resources are what Kazakhstan has available to them and used in concert with the foreign policy instruments will give the means to obtain the foreign policy objectives. Kazakhstan’s natural resources such as natural gas, oil and minerals are what gives Kazakhstan their foreign policy some “heft”.
Profits from energy products are transforming Kazakhstan into a major creditor nation. The goals of Astana are to secure energy transit and economic interest and to increase “Kazakhstan’s influence over geopolitical development”. There are many diplomatic and consular offices along with numerous embassies that Kazakhstan has all around the world. Currently Kazakhstan has “32 full embassies, 4 permanent representations, more than 10 diplomatic missions, 7 general consulates, 7 consulates, and 1 passport-visa agency.” Kazakhstan’s development of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence building measure in Asia (CICA) was a major step in stabilizing Asia.
On June 4 2002 a summit took place in Almaty where the heads of 16 nation states took part in talks and declared support for peaceful resolution of disputes and the common fight against terrorism. When the United States went into Afghanistan, Kazakhstan granted the use of their airspace as well as giving the US landing rites at one of their airports for re-fueling operations. Kazakhstan has also committed engineer soldiers to Iraq to conduct mine clearing operations in support of operation Iraqi freedom.
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Kazakhstan uses its instruments of foreign policy to influence the international community in order to reach their objectives. Kazakhstan has developed alliances with bordering nations in order to establish a “security belt” around their borders. Originally Kazakhstan’s multi vector foreign policy was directed at the major powers which are Russia, China, the United States, and Europe.
Recently Kazakhstan has “tweaked” their multi vector approach to include many smaller nation states. With that being said, Kazakhstan has opened economic relations and trade with much of the world community in order to gain economic stability within their own borders.
Kazakhstan has been an active supporter of the United States in the Global was on Terrorism. It is in Kazakhstan’s interest to support coalition efforts due to their geographic location and their closeness to Afghanistan. Diplomatic relations have been established with over 120 nation states in an effort to achieve autonomy as well as regional stability which will strengthen their position in the world community.
Kazakhstan’s global strategy applies to their nation state because of their economic policy and because of their position in the war on terrorism. Their regional strategy applies to maintaining stability in central Asia so Kazakhstan can become an economic power within the region. The national strategy applies to their national economic growth and their investment in infrastructure such as exit routes and pipelines for their energy products and minerals.
Human rights and the spread of Democracy are at the center of the United States foreign policy. Human rights were one of the foundation blocks laid down by our fore fathers over 200 years ago. It is the policy of the United States to support persons who want to live in freedom and desire to belong to a democratic government that will protect their basic human rights.
Since establishing independence in 1991, Kazakhstan’s record on human rights has been blemished by the current administration. The government severely limits the people’s rights to change their government. The legal structure which also includes the constitution does not safeguard basic human rights. There have been reports that some members of the security forces committed extrajudicial executions.
There have been several reports of abuse and the imprisonment of political figures that do not share the same vision as the current administration. Government has restricted the freedom of speech and freedom of the press. There are vague laws that concern the media that add to the increased pressure for the media to practice self censorship.
Kazakhstan’s foreign policy was developed on the basis that their national interests made it necessary to create and nurture stable relations with other nation states. Political dialog and cooperation within the sphere of security are mutually supported by increased trade and economic interest. This will affect the United States in a couple of different ways. First on the positive side, Kazakhstan embraced the United States post 9/11 attention towards Kazakhstan as a partner in the global war on terrorism in ways as defeating the Taliban in Afghanistan and stopping the flow of Muslim extremist into central Asia from Pakistan and Afghanistan.
On the negative side is the suspicion that the United States only has interest in the vast energy resources Kazakhstan possesses now and in the future. This may not be entirely the perception of the Kazak government but may be the perception of neighboring states and ultimately could have an impact on a United States presence in Central Asia.