Qualitative Research Method


Qualitative research is known as an early form of social sciences. According to many theorists qualitative method allows researchers collect an in-depth understanding of human behavior, experiment, opinion, or attitude relating to individuals or a group or a case study through the key methods such as in-depth interview, focus group, observation etc. The qualitative method does not investigates the what of happening but also discover the why and how of decision making. It often requires a small but focused samples rather than large random samples. Qualitative research allows the researchers limit the context errors using interview techniques and create an environment in which interview subjects feel most comfortable. In qualitative research, some research questions and methods of gathering information is prepared first, but they can be adjusted to fit the new information appears in the collection process.In the study, it is appropriate for the study to employ a case study of qualitative research method associated with in-depth interview technique due to the reasons that will be presented in the below sections including The Case Study Approach and Research Paradigm and Sampling.

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The Case Study Approach

According to many theorist, case study is employed to collect information when researchers need to have knowledge about some people, problems and specific situations, as well as the cases have more information or can provide a deeper look phenomenon of interest. It helps researchers to get insight a complex issue and “emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships” (Sue Soy, 2006). Another advantage of the case study research is that helps researchers concentrate on a specific topic of interest (Shuttleworth, 2008).

In this study, Danang traditional television broadcasters will be chosen as the subject of study. It includes DRT, a local traditional television in Danang and Danang Television Station (DVTV), affiliated to Vietnamese Television Station (VTV) in Danang.

In fact, Danang television market, besides the competition between DRT and DVTV there is really the fierce competition between local broadcasters and Vietnamese Television Station (VTV) with the channels such as VTV1, VTV2, VTV3, VTV4 etc., as well as cable TV such as Autumn River Company (ARICO) and digital TV which is increasing to compete market share with traditional television.

With the aim of study is on competitive strategies and potential development in advertising of local traditional television, the case study of Danang traditional television broadcasters (DRT and DVTV) are appropriate for three reasons: (1) Danang is the most developed city in the middle of Vietnam, being one of three largest city of Vietnam; (2) the researcher who is living in Danang will be easy to approach to research subjects; (3) It will be appropriate for timescale and the study methods for in-depth interview to answer the research questions.

Research Question

From the review of literature on TV advertising both of critical theory and practice in Vietnam, the study will ask: “What are competitive strategies of the traditional television broadcasters in Danang carried out in order to develop advertising revenue?”

This research question will be focus on examining three issues including:

– To examine the organizational development strategies in the competitive environment (including human resources development, corporate identity and image building etc.)

– To consider the competitive scheduling strategies to attract audiences.

– To explore the ads price and promotion strategies to compete with its rivals in Danang market.

The research Paradigm and Sampling

In order to explore the above issues, various methods of both quantitative research and qualitative research may be used such as content analysis, survey or focus group, in-depth interview, particularly or co-operatively etc. Such methods will be able to allow the study exam a large number of resources of information from TV viewers, experts in TV industries. However, it will take long time and it may exceed the size of the dissertation. In addition, there are some obstacles in seeking exact data of population for survey with random sampling in Vietnam. It is also difficulties in finding information of for content analysis. Because as above presented, there are lack of academic studies both theoretical viewpoint and practical activities on advertising television strategies in Vietnam.

Thus, in order to conduct the research, in-depth interview of qualitative research method is employed due to three following reasons: (1) In – depth interview is used to explore deep a specific topic, to collect the maximum information on the subject is studied. In-depth interview will be useful to collect detailed information (Boyce, 2006) by interviewing the persons who are working in TV industries. (2) In-depth interview is helpful to examine deep practical activities of on competitive strategies of TV ads depending on the review of literature as above presented. (3) It is appropriate for a two-month research by small but focused sample.

The interviewer will be DRT and DVTV leaders with the selected sample of 4 for each broadcaster. Thus the sample size is 8. Four of each will be chosen includes Director (or deputy) of TV station; Manager of Center Advertising; Manager of Advertising scheduling; and Editor of advertising scheduling;

Data collection and research analysis techniques

Data collection

In order to answer the research question, sub-questions will be prepared as semi-structure open questions so that the interviewer can control timescale and detailed information. In addition, some steps of interview plan will be carefully prepared, includes: (1) What to say to interviewees when setting up the interview; (2) What to say to interviewees when beginning the interview, including ensuring informed consent and confidentiality of the interviewee; (3) What to say to interviewees in concluding the interview; (4) What to do during the interview (Example: Take notes); and (5) What to do following the interview (Example: Fill in notes? Summarize key information for each? Submit written findings?) (Boyce, 2006)

The interview will arrange around 120 minutes per person, and take places in DRT and DVTV.

During the interview, taking notes with paper will be chosen to gather information. Then the notes of information will be translated into English.

Data analysis

Approaching the analysis will involve the following steps:

Step one: Categorizing interview material into various sub-topics

The interview responses translated will be read through out and looked for patterns or themes among the participants. In this process, notes and transcriptions collected from interview will be sorted into the broad topics or sub-topics. Whether there are some new themes emerging from the interview, they will be also added. All codes or categories will be reduced to key theme and dimensions for the study.

Step two: Labeling each category using appropriate headings

Notes and transcriptions will be quoted and reduced to key codes or categories in only a few words. These categories will be labeled appropriately.

Step three: Describing and interpreting the major findings

This step includes considering interviewed responses in each topic as group, and interpreting implications for interventions, reporting findings. Especially, significant difference of viewpoints will be considered.

For data supplied by TNS Media’s research will be analyzed by Stata in comparing with findings of the study.

The limitation of the research

It is similar to any other research conducted by interview technique. Due to the characteristics of in-depth interview, there will be some following limitations of the research. (1) The findings will not be representative of general viewpoints of persons who are in ads TV business. (2) This study will base on the participants’ respondent personally. Then, it is easy to lead to be subjective. (3) Due to the characteristic of In-depth interview and information collection is used by taking notes on paper, this study is easy to be sensitive to the interviewer bias. Final limitation is the difficulty to replicate by translating from Vietnamese into English transparency.



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