Chronic Non-communicable Diseases(CNCD)
Non-communicable diseases are chronic conditions that do not result from an acute infectious process, which known to be an instant progress, however, they lead to death, physical dysfunction, or impairment in the quality of life. In addition to that, chronic condition develop over relatively long period at first without causing sign and symptoms, but after while the diseases manifestations develop over time, there may be a period of protracted impaired health condition. Commonly, non-communicable diseases are considered to have characteristic of non-transmissible from person to person by contact or any other form of transmissions. Also chronic non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death globally, killing more people each year than all other causes combined. Thus, Chronic non-communicable diseases are vastly becoming the international core of health issue and awareness toward them is instantly put into identifying solutions to the problem globally. According to WHO, the four main types of non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases mainly heart attacks and stroke, followed by cancers, chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma, and lastly diabetes. This paper describes a framework, based on an ecological model, for addressing the major risk factors that contribute to chronic non-communicable diseases. Moreover, constructing ways to avoid and modify getting contact with chronic non-communicable diseases. CNCD prevention and control interventions will be incorporated into the healthy settings approach from the government to the individual level will lessen the overall critical CNCD globally.
In addressing risk factors in each different sector from the ecological model can lessen the chances of getting Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases. The ecological model is categorized in decreasing ecological size order; start with public policy, flowed by community group, institutional group, interpersonal group, and individual level. Each group of ecological model will play a key role to preventions and appropriate intervention on CNCD.
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To begin with, the action of public policy on development of a system to establish targets, designate responsibility, and conduct performance management will gain success in prevention and intervention. Specifically, the developments of policy has focus on all areas on overall objectives and take priorities into account in order to develop local prevention and treatment plan in every annual period. Thus, it requires careful research on policies and measures that will facilitate the achievement of the goals, and effectively solve the problems and difficulties in CNCD prevention and treatment. Followed by, put into place policy guarantees, personnel staffing, capital investment, supervision and incentives will strengthen social mobilization. Moreover, make efforts to form a prevention and treatment synergic effect among the government and the society. For preferences of improvement, policies shall be introduced to enhance the quality of the environment, by increasing supported coverage area such as fitness facilities to build a healthy environment, to promote balanced diet, regular exercise, as well as tobacco free and alcohol consumption control area, result in avoidance of major risk factors of CNCD.
Secondly, working in addressing from the community group such as organizations, community leaders, citizens will enhance the avoidance of risk factors affecting the populations. The ministry of health plays a key role in this coverage, revising existing and develop new guidelines, manuals and training modules for all of the activities showing the interaction between the ecological models of institutional and community group. In addition to that the departments of science and technology, industry and information technology, agriculture, protection of environment, commerce, radio film and television, press and publication, food and drug administration, etc. shall closely cooperate in accordance with their functions as well as perform their set obligations and accomplish their responsibilities. The essential job of communities, schools, worksites and healthcare sites can support and promote healthy behaviors through policies and environmental factors such as smoke-free workplaces, healthy cafeteria meals, sidewalks & bike paths, incentives for bicycle and pedestrian commuters, worksite wellness programs, insurance coverage for preventive services like tobacco cessation. In addition to that, strengthening of the School Health programs to include a component involving the family and community, in both health education and health-promoting activities such as increasing and enhancing physical education program, stimulate extracurricular physical activity time to time, provision of healthy food at schools, sensitively conducts inspections to unhealthy food at schools, and school-based CNCD risk factor screening and intervention.
Thirdly, interpersonal group plays a role in early prevention and intervention of the major risk factors that contribute to the CNCD health problems. Group of family, friends, and social networks plays a role in addressing the critical case and helps out to avoid the preventable diseases. For example, Training of teachers and members of Parents-Teachers Association to raise awareness of the issue of increasing obesity and other CNCD risk factors in children under the school health program, highlighting the CNCD risk factors in particularly obesity and healthy diet. Also, providing lectures on prevention and management of childhood obesity will be another choice, whereas healthy eating & physical activity exercise includes additional training for implementation of school-based programs for CNCD managing risk factors. On top of that, ministry of health, part of institution group is responsible for producing the necessary guidelines, manuals and training modules also seeing interconnected relationship within ecological model. As the result bring on progressive in training community members especially in healthy eating, physical activity and exercise, also avoiding risk factors that contributes to CNCD within interpersonally.
Lastly, in solving the way improving factors such as knowledge, attitudes and skills of individual level can bring extra contributions to lessen the severity of global critic of death due to the major risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Take on self-care responsibilities and become a resource for themselves and others in disease prevention and management will be further expanded. NCD prevention and control interventions will be incorporated into the healthy settings approach; this will include expanding the school health services to include nutrition and exercise promotion, cardiovascular risk and early intervention. To be informative, critical attribution resulted unhealthy lifestyle or modifiable behaviors like tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, however, the most effective models of eliminating risk factors focus on changing individual behaviors start from itself.